Internet and Web Essentials
This material has been prepared to accompany the book "Internet and Web Essentials" (ISBN 1887902460) by Ernest Ackermann and Karen Hartman, and published by Franklin, Beedle and Associates, Incorporated, Wilsonville OR, ©2000. No part of this may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transcribed without permission of the publisher.

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Chapter 15—Writing Web Pages 

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Web pages are text or ASCII files in which HTML, Hypertext Markup Language, is used to specify the format of the Web page, images to be displayed, hyperlinks, and possibly other elements. A Web browser interprets the HTML in the file, called the source file, and then displays the Web page. So one part of the task of writing Web pages is learning how to use HTML to design and implement appropriate and effective pages.

The source file for a Web page consists of text, URLs, and other elements along with tags or directives written according to the rules of HTML. HTML tags are enclosed between < and >. Some tags occur in pairs with the second being like the first, except a slash is used after < to indicate it’s the matching tag; for example, <I> and </I>. Other tags occur as single entities, such as <HR>. Tags can be written using upper- or lowercase letters; HTML ignores the case of letters in a tag. In URLs you have to pay strict attention to the case of the letters. An HTML document ought to have two parts, a heading and a body. The heading contains the title for the Web page, and the body holds the content—what will be displayed on the Web page. HTML tags can be used for some control over vertical spacing, such as ending lines and starting paragraphs, but otherwise most horizontal and vertical spacing within a source file is ignored. The browser takes care of fitting the page within its window. HTML tags are also used to specify up to six levels of headings in a document and control whether text is displayed in bold, italic, or plain font. Lists—numbered, bulleted, or descriptive—can be specified with HTML tags. HTML is also used to create and specify hyperlinks and place images within a Web page. The hyperlinks start with a tag of the form <A HREF="URL"> (where you substitute an actual URL for URL), followed by text or a tag for an image, and then terminated with </A>. The following:

It appears that <A HREF=""> Ernest Ackermann</A> is the culprit!

would appear on a Web page as

It appears that Ernest Ackermann is the culprit!

Clicking, in the Web page, on Ernest Ackermann would cause the browser to open the location associated with Images are put into Web pages using a tag of the form <IMG SRC="URL"> where the URL of an image is put in for URL. The image needs to be either in GIF or JPEG format to be displayed by the Web browser. Text can be aligned with an image, either at the top, middle, or bottom. Images can be placed to the left or right of text. HTML does have lots of other tags; we’ve covered the basic ones in this chapter.

Since a source file is in text format, it can be created with any editor or word-processing program that allows you to save a file in text or ASCII form. No special program to create a Web page is necessary, but when there’s lots to do or you have to convert from another format to a Web document, it’s useful to have a program designed to create Web pages. Some are available as shareware, some as freeware, and some must be purchased before using them.

Learning HTML is one part of being able to create interesting and effective Web pages. You also need to be concerned with the content and the layout of the content.

Designing, creating, or writing a Web page is generally very satisfying. You create something and then let people around the world see it. Before making the page available to the world, you can develop it on your computer and view it with your Web browser. When you need help or want to pursue the topic further there are a number of resources, guides, newsgroups, and mailing lists on the Web to give help in creating or authoring Web pages. What fun!

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Selected Terms Used in This Chapter

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Exercises and Projects

Please see the text

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Information About Creating Web Pages (7)
Listings in directories, discussion groups, newsgroups, tutorials and guides to help you create Web pages.
Personal Web Pages (5)
Collections of personal Web pages, articles on the reasons people create personal Web pages.
Sources for Images and Graphics (1)
Sources for free images and graphics you can use with your Web pages.
Special Characters (4)
Links to tables that show you how to represent special characters such as punctuation, letters with accents, Greek letters, and so on.
Web Page Colors (2)
Information about representing colors in HTML.
Summary | Terms | Exercises| FYIs

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